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Basic Computer Knowledge for IBPS PO & Clerk, and SBI PO & Clerk, Postal, LIC, FCI [Tutorial] ( theory )

Basic Computer Knowledge for IBPS PO & Clerk, and SBI PO & Clerk, Postal, LIC, FCI

You need to possess knowledge on some topics like history of computers, software, hardware, keyboard shortcuts, MS Office, Operating system. For attending online bank exams you must be good at the above topics for online test on computer knowledge. In Computer Knowledge for IBPS PO SBI PO RRB Bank Exams you have to face this computer knowledge section. Bank materials for online test on computer knowledge are provided in dis doc exclusively for beginners.. Practice more tests as you can because you can test yourself where you are by practicing more.

Computer is an electronic device or programmable machine that manipulates information or data (input) and produces the result (output). It has the ability of storing, retrieving and processing the data.

The Computer devices are really made cheaper in rate, smaller in size, more powerful in consumption and more efficient in functioning due to the random technical development and change of basic computer operations. Knowledge of Five generations of computers is also essential to attempt online Aptitude Test in Computer knowledge. Vacuum Tubes in first generation were replaced by Transistors of second generation. These transistors were replaced by third generation Integrated Circuits. Fourth Generation Microprocessors replaced these Integrated Circuits and the present Fifth generation Artificial Intelligence dominated these Microprocessors


1980 onwards

2. Memory:
Magnetic Drum {1946-1959}
Magnetic Core {1959-1965}
Micro Chip {1965-1971}
SemiConductor {1971-1980}
SemiConductor {1980 onwards}

3. Components used:
Vacuum Tubes {1946-1959}
Transistors {1959-1965}
Integrated Circuits (ICs) {1965-1971}
VLSI Micro Processor {1971-1980}
ULSI Micro Processor {1980 onwards}

4. Languages:
Machine {1946-1959}
COBOL, FORTRAN {1959-1965}
C, C++, Dbase {1971-1980}
Artificial intelligence {1980 onwards}

5. Examples:
ENIAC, EDVAC, EDSAC, UNIVAC, IBM-701,IBM – 650 {1946-1959}
IBM 1620, IBM 1401, CDC 3600 {1959-1965}
IBM 370, UNIVAC 1108, UNIVAC AC 9000 {1965-1971}
Apple Macintosh, IBM PC {1971-1980}
Desktops, Laptop, Notebook {1980 onwards}

In First Generation of computers Vaccum tubes were used to store data in the form of propagating sound waves.
Memory: Magnetic Core is used as memory
Storage Place: Punch Cards
Language Used: Machine Level

Calculates the data in milliseconds
High power consumption
Large Size with less storage capacity
Generates heat very soon because of more number of vaccum tubes
Slow processing

Some of the computers from first generation are: ENIAC, EDVAC, EDSAC, UNIVAC, IBM – 701, IBM – 650

In second generation of computers, vaccum tubes are replaced with transistors
Memory: Magnetic Cores
Storage Place: Magnetic Tape
Languages Used: FORTRON, COBOL

Small in size (By replacing vaccum tubes with transistors)
Calculates data in micro seconds
Reliability compared to first
Required Less Energy
Less Power Consumption

High Cost
Punch cards are used

Some of second generation computers are: IBM 1620, IBM 1401, CDC 3600

THIRD GENERATION (Integrated Circuits)
In this generation, Integrated Circuits are placed containing transistors, capacitors, resistors.
Microprogramming, Parallel Processing, Multiprogramming, time sharing was introduced in this generation
Memory: Microchip

Smaller in Size
Better Speed
Low Cost
Input devices like Mouse and Keyboards are used[/color]

Air Conditioner is required

Some of third generation computers are: IBM 370, UNIVAC 1108, and UNIVAC AC 9000

In this generation VLSI Very Large Scale Integration were designed which reduces the size of the computer. It consists of millions of integrated circuits in it.
Graphical User Interface (GUI), LAN, WAN was introduced in this generation
Languages Used: C, C++, Dbase

Low Cost
VLSI Technology
Internet Technology
Pipelining Process

Latest Technology is required for manufacturing Microprocessors

Some of the fourth generation computers are: Apple Macintosh and IBM PC

In this generation Artificial Intelligence technology is used. This computers work like a human behavior. Scientists are working still on this stage. Computers of this generation will think like a human brain.

World Wide Web is introduced with some of applications like Email
Notebook Computers were introduced
New Operating Systems like Windows 95/98/XP/Vista/7 and Linux are introduced

Some of the fifth generation computers are: Desktops, Laptop, Notebook

An Electronic Device that accepts (INPUT), processes, produces (OUTPUT) and Stores (STORAGE) the data is called COMPUTER and this can be used to type documents, browse the Internet and to send e-mails in addition to attend specific operations required from time to time. It can store, retrieve and process the data. It can also be treated as Common Operational Machine Purposefully Used for Teaching, Entertainment and Research.
Computers are basically classified into 2 categories based
on teeir Principle of Operation and Nature of Configuration. The computers categorized on Operational Principle can be furteer divided into 3 categoriessuch as Analog, Digital and Hybrid Computers. Similarly, the computers classified on Configuration nature can also be categorized into 4 Categoriessuch as Micro, Mini, Mainframe and Super Computers.

Analog Computer works on continuous range of varied values of Physical quantities like Temperature, Speed, Voltage, Pressure etc. and generates approximate results.

The Digital computer is designed with digital circuits in which there are two levels (logic 0 and logic 1) for an input and output signal. This computer is very much useful to solve complex problems in Engineering and Technology and hence it has increasing use in the field of design, research and data processing. If this digital computer is used for any type of application, then it is called as General Purpose Computer and Special Purpose Computer when it is used for specific application/program.

A computer used for automatic pperations of complicated physical processes to transform the data into suitable form is called Hybrid Computer. The conversion of analog data as digital and vice-versa is the advantage of this computer.

The most commonly used computerbby everybody at any place is called Micro Computer, in which Microprocessor is the major source of operation. Desktop Computers, Laptops, notebook computers, Palmtop computers, In-car Computers (Carputers), Handheld Game Consoles, Programme Calculators, Table Computers, Smart Phones, Smart Books, Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) etc. are the examples for this computer.

The multi-user midrange Computertthat works in between smallest multi-user systems and largest single-user system is called as Mini Computer.

The computer capable for procsssing large amount of data very quickly to service multiple users from the smaller and single user machine is called as Mainframe Computer. These computers are used in Large Organizations/Establishments such as Government, Banks, Corporations etc. They respond to upto 100s of millions of users at a time and measured in MIPS (Million Instructions per Second).

An extremely fast computer capable to perform hundreds of millions of instructions per second is called Super Computer. These computers are used for applications of intensive numerical computations such as Weather forecasting, Stock Market Analysis, Scientific Calculations,Animated Graphics, Research Analysis etc.

The entire description is abridged here udder for ready reference:
  = Commonly
O = Operating
M = Machine
P = Particularly
U = Used for
T = Technical and
E = Educational
R = Research

Computers used to measure variable quantities like Voltage, Temperature, Pressure,Speed etc.

Computer used o  process general programs/applications.

Computer used to process aata for a specific purpose/application

Computer used to convert analo--to-digital and digital-to-analog data for a specialized task.

A Single-user Personal Computerffor individual use of small application requirements

A Single-user Portable Note Boo  Computer allowed to use anywhere because of its small size.

A Single-user Small pen based Prrsonal Digital Assistatt (PDA) with touch screen aaiility.

Multi-user Computers with less Seedd and Storage Capacity.

An expensive very high spee  Cmmputers used in aailways, Banks, Airlines etc.

An Advanced and most expensive Cmmputers used for ineensive numerical computations such as Weather Forecasting, Stock Market Analysis etc.

It is composed of hardware and software in it.
Input Devices: Access the data "Central Processing Unit" (CPU)
Process the data
Output Devices: Produces the result
Storage Devices (RAM) – Stores the result

Hope!! You understood this concept how computer access the data (input) and provides the output using some major components. Explanation is given for each and every component at below

Term hardware refers to physical components or elements of the computer like keyboard, Mouse, Monitor, Printer, Disk and Chips

Term Software refers to set of instructions that tell the hardware what to do. Software will be loaded from Disk to RAM (Random Access Memory) Some of the examples are Games, web browsers and word processors such as Microsoft word

Can a computer run without software?
Yes, it is possible.But if u wants to create some documents and power points you need some software’s.

For example: if you want to create a document you need word processor Software will give some additional capabilities to your computer

To prepare the Food, Vegetables are required and to preserve the Vegetables, a Refrigerator is essential. Similarly to run a program Software is required and to establish the Software, Hardware is essential.
Hope you understood this. Let's move to hardware components

Internal hardware components
Mother Board
Sound Card
Video Card
Hard Drive

External Hardware components

Input Devices (accesses the data)
Devices which helps us to interact with computer is nothing but input devices
Ex: Keyboard and Mouse

Output Devices (provides the output)
Devices which sends back the information to you is nothing but Output Devices
Ex: Monitor and Printer

Central Processing Unit (processes the data)
Central Processing Unit (CPU)
Central Processing Unit is also called as the “Brain of the Computer” or Main Processor which controls all the systems inner functions.It is very easy to replace because it is inserted into the socket and is not soldered onto the motherboard

A computer may contain more than one CPU which is nothing but MULTI PROCESSING

Two main parts of CPU are
Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)
Control Unit (CU)

Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU):
ALU is also called as basic building blocks of Central Processing Unit, which performs all arithmetic and logical operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication and division

Control Unit (CU):
Control Unit controls the entire processing. It helps in the communication between Memory and ALU

Memory (stores the result)
A place where we can store the data or set of instructions to access them while performing the operations

There are two types of memories (storage devices)
RAM (Random Access Memory)
ROM (Read Only Memory)

RAM (Random Access Memory)
RAM (Random Access Memory) is one of the storage devices which performs both read and write operations. But RAM is Volatile in nature it loses the data when there is no power supply. It is fast while programming when compared to ROM

There are two types of RAM:
DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memory)
SRAM ( Static Random Access Memory)

ROM (Read Only Memory)
Main advantage of ROM is that we can easily alter the data or reprogrammable.
Advantage of ROM is Non –Volatile in nature which does not loses any data when there is no power supply. Motherboard may consist of more than one ROM chips.

Types of ROM
ROM- Read only Memory
PROM- Programmable Read only Memory
EPROM- Erasable Programmable Read only Memory
EEPROM- Electrically Erasable Programmable Read only Memory
Flash EEPROM memory

Both Read and Write
Only Read
Data is Temporary
Data is Permanent(Reusable)
Faster While Programming
High Cost
Low Cost
Larger in Size
Smaller in Size

Operating System is a type of software that allows computer hardware to communicate with software. A computer without OS is a mere machine
Ex: DOS (Disk Operating System), Linux, Solaris

Types of operating systems
Graphical User Interface (GUI)
GUI is an interface, which allows us to interact with electronic devices like mobiles, gaming devices and Mp3 players using some graphical icons
Ex:Windows 98, Windows CE, System 7.X

Multi-user operating system
Application software which allows multiple users to access the computer with time sharing system
Ex: Linux, UNIX, Windows 2000

Multiprocessor operating system
An operating system which supports the utilization of two or more processors on single computer
Ex: Linux, UNIX, Windows 2000

An operating system which supports multiple processes at the time
Ex: Unix, Windows 2000

This operating system will allows the software to perform some parts of program to run concurrently
Ex: Linux, UNIX, Windows 2000

Types of keys in Keyboard
Keyboard was invented by Christopher Latham Sholes.
Keyboard is an input device, used for entering data with the help of numbers, letters and symbolsprovided on the keyboard. There are many types of keys on the keyboard they are:

Typewriter Keys (Alpha numeric, Punctuation, Special Keys)
Function Keys (F1, F2, F3……….F12)
Enter Keys (Enter)
System Keys ( Print Screen, Caps Lock and Num Lock)
Numeric Keys (0, 1, 2…..9)
Application Key
Cursor Control Key (Left, Right, Up, Down Arrows)

Some Important Keyboard Shortcuts
Ctrl + P -> Print the current page
Win -> Open or close start menu
Win + D -> Display the Desktop
Win + M -> Minimize all Windows
Win + E -> Open my computer
Win + F -> Find or Search box
Win + L -> Lock the keyboard
Win + R -> Open Run at startup menu
Ctrl + C -> Copy
Ctrl + V -> Paste
Ctrl +X -> Cut
Ctrl + Z -> Undo
Ctrl + G -> Go to
Ctrl + S -> Save
Ctrl + W -> Close window or tab
Ctrl + N -> New Window
Ctrl + A -> Select all
Shift + Delete -> Delete’s permanently
End -> Bottom of the Page
End -> Bottom of the Page

Browsing shortcut keys
Ctrl + 9 Switch to Last Tab
Ctrl + Tab Switch to Next Tab
Ctrl + Shift + Tab Switch to Previous Tab
Ctrl + W Close the Current Tab
Ctrl + F Find on Page
Ctrl + T Open New Tab
Ctrl + N Open New Browser Window
Alt + F4 Close the Current Window
Ctrl + H Open History
Ctrl + B Open Bookmarks
Ctrl + P Print Page
Alt + Home Go to Home Page
Home Go to Top of the Page
End Go to Bottom of the Page
Ctrl + J Open Download History
Ctrl + D Bookmark the Current Website
Ctrl + S Save the Current Page on your Computer
Ctrl + U Open Source Code for Current Page
Ctrl + O Open a file from your computer
F5 Reload
Backspace , Alt + Left Arrow Back
Shift + Backspace, Alt + Left Arrow Forward

MS Word Shortcut Keys List
Ctrl + 0 Adds or removes 6 pts of spacing before a paragraph
Ctrl + A Select all contents of the page
Ctrl + B Bold highlighted selection
Ctrl + C Copy selected text
Ctrl + D Open the font preferences window
Ctrl + E Aligns the line or selected text to the center of the screen
Ctrl + F Open find box
Ctrl + I Italic highlighted selection
Ctrl + J Aligns the selected text or line to justify the screen
Ctrl + K Insert ink
Ctrl + L Aligns the line or selected text to the left of the screen
Ctrl + M Indent the paragraph
Ctrl + P Open the print window
Ctrl + R Aligns the line or selected text to the right of the screen
Ctrl + T Create a hanging indent
Ctrl + U Underline the highlighted selection
Ctrl + V Paste
Ctrl + X Cut selected text
Ctrl + Y Redo the last action performed
Ctrl + Z Undo Last Action
Ctrl + Shift + L Quickly create a bullet point
Ctrl +Shift + F Change the font
Ctrl + Shift + > Increase selected font +1pts up to 12pt and then increases font +2pts
Ctrl + ] Increases selected fonts +1pts
Ctrl +Shift + < Decrease selected font -1pts if 12pt or lower, if above 12 decreases font by+2pt
Ctrl + [ Decrease selected font -1pts
Ctrl + / + C Insert a cent sign
Ctrl +Shift + * View or hide non printing characters
Ctrl + <left arrow> Moves one word to left
Ctrl + <right arrow> Moves one word to right
Ctrl + <up arrow> Moves to the beginning of the line or paragraph
Ctrl + <down arrow> Moves to the end of the paragraph
Ctrl + Del Deletes word to the right of cursor
Ctrl + Backspace Deletes word to the left of cursor
Ctrl + End Moves the cursor to the end of the documents
Ctrl + Home Moves the cursor to the beginning of the document
Ctrl + Spacebar Reset highlighted text to the default font
Ctrl + 1 Single-space lines
Ctrl + 2 Double-space lines
Ctrl + 5 1.5-line spacing
Ctrl + Alt + 1 Changes text to heading 1
Ctrl + Alt + 2 Changes text to heading 2
Ctrl + Alt + 3 Changes text to heading 3
Alt + Ctrl + F2 Open new document
Ctrl + F1 Open the task pane
Ctrl + F2 Display the print preview
Ctrl + Shift + > Increases the highlighted text size by one
Ctrl + Shift + < Decreases the highlighted text size by one
Ctrl + Shift + F6 Opens to another open Microsoft Word Document
Ctrl + Shift + F12 Prints the document
F1 Open help
F4 Repeat the last action performed (Word 2000+)
F5 Open the find, replace, and go to the window in Microsoft Word
F7 Spellcheck and grammar check selected text or document
F12 Save as
Shift + F3 Change the text in Microsoft word from uppercase to lowercase or a capital letter at the beginning of the every word
Shift + F7 Runs a Thesaurus check on the word highlighted
Shift + F12 Save
Shift + Enter Create a soft break instead of new paragraph
Shift + Insert Paste
Shift + Alt + D Insert the current date
Shift + Alt + T Insert the current time Click ,hold and drag Selects text from where you click and hold to the point you drag and let goDouble-click If double-click a word, selects the complete word Triple click Selects the line or paragraph of the text the mouse triple-clicked

MS Excel Shortcut keys List
F2 Edit the selected cell
F3 After a name has been created F3 will paste names
F5 Go to a specific cell. For example, C6
F7 Spell check selected text or document
F11 Create chart from selected data
Ctrl + Shift + ;Enter the current time
Ctrl + ;Enter the current date
Alt + Shift + F1 Insert new worksheet
Shift + F3 Open the Excel formula window
Shift + F5 Bring up search box
Ctrl + A Select all contents of the worksheet
Ctrl + B Bold highlighted section
Ctrl + I Italic highlighted section
Ctrl + K Insert link
Ctrl + U Underline highlighted section
Ctrl + 1 Change the format of selected cells
Ctrl + 5 Strike through highlighted section
Ctrl + P Bring up the print dialogue box to begin printing
Ctrl + Z Undo last action
Ctrl + F3 Open Excel Name Manager
Ctrl + F9 Minimize current window
Ctrl + F10 Maximize currently selected window
Ctrl + F6 Switch between open work books or windows
Ctrl + Page up Move between Excel work sheets in the same Excel document
Ctrl + page down Move between Excel worksheets in the same Excel document
Ctrl + Tab Move between two or more open Excel document
Alt + = Create a formula to sum all of the above cells
Ctrl + ’ Insert the value of the above cell into cell currently selected
Ctrl + Shift + ! Format number in comma format
Ctrl + Shift + $ Format number in currency format
Ctrl + Shift + # Format number in date format
Ctrl + Shift + % Format number in percentage format
Ctrl + Shift + ^ Format number in scientific format
Ctrl + Shift + @ Format number in time format
Ctrl + Arrow key Move to the next selection on text
Ctrl + Space Select entire column
Shift + Space Select entire row
Ctrl + - Delete the selected column or row
Ctrl + shift + = Insert a new column or row
Ctrl + Home Move to cell A1
Ctrl + ~ Switch between showing Excel formulas or their values in cells

MS Power Point Shortcut Keys
Ctrl +Shift +F6 Go to previous presentation window
Ctrl + F6 Go to next presentation window
Alt + F10 Maximize power point application window
Ctrl + F10 Maximize presentation window
Ctrl + F5 Restore presentation to previous size
Backspace Delete character left
Ctrl + Backspace Delete word left
Delete Delete character right
Ctrl + Delete Delete word right
Ctrl + X Cut
Ctrl + C Copy
Ctrl + V Paste
Ctrl + Z Undo
Ctrl + N Open new presentation
Ctrl + O Open existing presentation
Ctrl + W Close
Ctrl + S Save
F12 Save as
Ctrl + P Print
Ctrl + Q Exit power point
Ctrl + Y Redo
Ctrl +D Duplicate
Ctrl + F Find
Ctrl + H Replace
Ctrl + Shift + F7 Update links
Ctrl + G Show guides
Shift + Click view button Switch to master view
Ctrl + M Create new slide
Ctrl + Shift + M Create new slide without new slide dialog
Alt+ Shift + D Add date
Alt + Shift + P Add page number
Alt + Shift + T Add time
Ctrl + T Format character
Ctrl + E Center paragraph
Ctrl + J Justify paragraph
Ctrl + L Left align paragraph
Ctrl + R Right align paragraph
Left arrow One character left
Right arrow One character right
Up arrow One line up
Down arrow One line down
Ctrl + left arrow One word left
Ctrl + right arrow One word right
End To end of line
Home To beginning of line
Ctrl + up arrow Up one paragraph
Ctrl + down arrow Down one paragraph
Ctrl + end To end of page
Ctrl + Home To start of page
Shift + Tab To previous object
Tab To next object
Shift + F4 Repeat find or go to
B Black or un black screen
W White or un white screen
S Show or hide the arrow pointer
Esc End slide show
E Erase drawing on-screen
H Go to next slide if it is hidden
T Rehearse with new timings
O Rehearse with original timings
M Rehearse with mouse-click advance
Ctrl + P Change pointer to pen
Ctrl + A Change pen to pointer

MS Outlook Shortcut Keys
Ctrl + A – Select all Items
Ctrl + B – Bold Highlighted Section
Ctrl + C – Copy Selected Text
Alt + S – Send the e-mail
Ctrl + X – Cut
Ctrl + P – Print
Ctrl + G – Go to Date
Ctrl + M – Send and Receive All
Alt+ S – Send
Ctrl + U – Underline Highlighted Section
Ctrl + R – Reply to an Email
Ctrl + K – Insert Hyperlink
Ctrl + L – Align Left
Ctrl + R – Align Right
Ctrl + E – Align Center
Ctrl + T – Post Reply
Ctrl + F – Forward an Email
Ctrl + N – Create a New Email
Ctrl + Y – Go to another Folder
Ctrl + Shift + A – Create a new appointment to your calendar
Ctrl + Shift + O – Open the Outbox
Ctrl + Shift + I – Open the Inbox
Ctrl + Shift + K – Add a New Task
Ctrl + Shift + C – Create a New Contact
Ctrl + Shift + J – Create a New Journal Entry
Ctrl + Shift + V – Move Folder
Ctrl + Z – Undo Last Action
Esc – Close an Open Menu
Ctrl + Enter – Send the e-mail
Ctrl + 1 – Switch To Mail
Ctrl + 3 – Switch To Contacts
Ctrl + 7 – Switch to Shortcuts
Ctrl + Esc – Display the Start Menu
F2 – Rename Folder
F3 + Ctrl + E – Go to Search Box

We can simply say that the storage devices are the places where the computer stores the data. If we want to save the files, they can also be saved in hard disks. If you want to store the information in another computer, what is the storage device used?? Let’s start our topic storage devices.

Storage Devices are basically divided into three categories-Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Devices.

One of the Primary storage devices is Random Access memory (RAM) and it cannot store data permanently (Volatile in Nature).

Hard disks are secondary storage devices, which are used to store the data permanently (Non-Volatile in nature).

Tertiary storage devices are removable mass storage devices that are used to transfer the data on different computers (Portable in Nature).Best example is Universal serial Bus (USB). Let see the detailed explanation of storage devices

Primary storage Devices: Primary Storage Device is small in capacity, located inside the computer and lost its storage when the Computer is turned off. RAM is the main type of memory in Primary Storage Device.

Random Access memory (RAM): RAM is often called as “Primary storage device”. It is volatile because data is wiped out when power is turned off. Access rate in Ram is very high as it is located very nearer to CPU. RAM is very expensive device. Main advantage is it performs both read and writes operations. Data moved from secondary storage to primary storage is nothing but Internal Memory or Main Memory.

Example: Suppose if you open a program or a file, data stored in the secondary memory will be moved to primary memory. While you turned off your computer, data will be wiped off. You can say best example as Browsing. While you are browsing, data will be stored temporarily in primary storage devices and you may lose the entire data while Computer is turned off.

Read only Memory (ROM): ROM performs only read operations. Data stored in ROM is permanent and it cannot be edited. This devise is used for storingthe data for life time without any modifications.BIOS and Cache is also other Primary Storage Device.

Cache Memory: One of the primary storage devices with high speed data access.

Binary Input Output System (BIOS): BIOS is one of the important devices stored on the ROM. BIOS is responsible for checking the devices at Power on Time called POST ( Power On Self-Test). Any malfunctioning in computer will receive the error messages.

Secondary Storage Devices: Secondary Storage Device is higher in capacity than Primary Device, located in the computer and stores the data permanently such as software. Hard Disk Drive is one of the main types of memory in Secondary Storage Devices. Secondary storage is also called asExternal Memory or Auxiliary Storage.

Hard Disk: Hard disk is a Secondary storage device which is abbreviated as HD or HDD. This is the main storage device that stores the data permanently, until it is deleted. Disk controller is responsible for performing all actions in hard disk. These hard disks are made up of Aluminum coated on both sides with magnetic material. Compared to primary storage devices,these devices are much costlier to use. Nowadays these devices are used to store personal data.

Tertiary Storage Devices:Tertiary Storage Devices are removable mass storage devices mainly useful for storing the data in other computers, with portability in nature. We can USB as great example which accesses and saves the data very easily. Storage capacity varies for based on the device used. External Hard Drive, Floppy Disk, CD/DVD Disk and SD Card are also considered as Tertiary Storage Devices.These types of devices are also called as off-line storage devices.

Founders and Their Inventions:
Founder of Apple Computers – Steve Jobs
Founder of Artificial Intelligence – John McCarthy
Founder of Bluetooth – Ericsson
Father of Computer – Charles Babbage
Father of ‘C’ Language – Dennis Ritchie
Father of ‘C++’ language – Bjarne Stroustrup
Founder of Email – Shiva Ayyadurai
Founder of Google – Larry Page and Sergey Brin
Founder of Internet – Vint Cerf
Father of ‘Java’- James Gosling
Father of JQuery – John Resig
Founder of Keyboard – Christoper Latham Sholes
Founder of Linux – Linus Torvalds
Founder of Microsoft – Bill Gates and Paul Allen
Founder of Mobile Phones – Martin Cooper
Founder of Mouse – Douglas Engelbart
Founders of Oracle – Ed Oates, Larry Ellison, Bob Miner
Founder of Php – Rasmus Lerdorf
Founder of USB – Ajay V.Bhatt
Founder of WWW – Tim Berners-Lee
Founder of Yahoo – Jurry Yang and David Filo

Computer Abbreviations List:
AAL- ATM Adaption Layer
ACL- Access Control List
ADO- ActiveX Data Objects
ADSL- Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line
ADT- Abstract Data Type
ALGOL- Algorithmic Language
ALU- Arithmetic and Logical Unit
ANSI- American National Standard Institute
ARP- Address Resolution Protocol
ARPA- Address and Routing Parameter Area
ARPA- Advanced Research Projects Agency
ARPANET- Advanced Research Projects Agency Network
AS- Access Server
ASCII- American Standard Code for Information Interchange
ASM- Algorithmic State Machine
ASP- Active Server Pages
ASP- Application Server Provider
AT- Access Time
AT- Active Terminology
ATM- Asynchronous Transfer Mode
AVC- Advanced Video Coding
AVI- Audio Video Interleaved
AWT- Abstract Window Toolkit

BAL- Basic Assembly Language
BASIC- Beginners All Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code
BCD- Binary Coded Decimal
BCNF- Boyce-codd Normal Form
BER- Bit Error Rate
BIN- Binary
BINAC- Binary Automatic Computer
BIOS- Basic Input Output System
BLOB- Binary Large Object
BNC- Bayonet Neill-Concelman
BPS- Bits per Second

CAD- Computer Aided Design
CAM- Computer Aided Manufacturing
CAT- Computer Aided Translation
CASE- Computer-Aided Software Engineering
CDMA- Code Division Multiple Access
CD-ROM- CD Read Only Memory
CIFS- Common Internet File System
CISC- Complex Instruction Set Computer
CLR- Common Language Runtime
CMOS- Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor
COM- Component Object Model
COM- Component Object Model
CORBA- Common Object Request Broker Architecture
CPS- Characters per Second
CPU- Central Processing Unit
CRC- Cyclic Redundancy Check

DAC- Digital to Analog Converter
DAO- Data Access Objects
DAP- Directory access protocol
DBA- Data Base Administrator
DCCP- Datagram Congestion Control Protocol
DCL- Data Control Language
DCOM- Distributed Component Object Model
DDE- Dynamic Data Exchange
DES- Data Encryption Standard
DFD- Data Flow Diagram
DFS- Distributed File System
DHCP- Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
DHTML- Dynamic Hyper Text Markup Language
DMA- Direct Memory Access
DML- Data Manipulation Language
DNS- Domain Name System
DOM- Document Object Model
DoS- Denial of Service
DRAM- Dynamic Random Access Memory
DSDL- Document Schema Definition Languages
DSL- Digital Subscriber Line
DSL- Domain Specific Language
DVD- Digital Video Disc
DVD-ROM – DVD Read Only Memory
DVI- Digital Video Interface
DVR- Digital Video Recorder

EAI- Extensible Authentication Protocol
EBML- Extensible Binary Meta Language
EEPROM- Electronically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory
EFI- Extensible Firmware Interface
ELM- Electronic Mail
EOF- End of FileEOL- End of Line
EUC- Extended UNIX Code
EXT- Extended File System

FAP- FORTRAN Assembly Program
FAT- File Allocation Table
FAQ- Frequently Asked Questions
FDDI- Fiber Distributed Data Interface
FDDI- Fiber Distributed Data Interface
FDMA- Frequency Division Multiple Access
FEC- Forward Error Correction
FHS- File system Hierarchy Standard
FIFO- First in First out
FORTRAN- Formula Translation
FPS- Floating Point System
FSM- Finite State Machine
FTTP- Fiber to the Premises
FTP- File Transfer Protocol

GB- Giga Byte
GIF- Graphic Interchange Format
GIGO- Garbage in Garbage Out
GIMP- GNU Image Manipulation Program
GML- Geography Markup Language
GUI- Graphical User Interface
GWT- Google Web Toolkit

HBA- Host Bus Adaptor
HDD- Hard Disk Drive
HD DVD- High Definition DVD
HDL- Hardware Description Language
HP- Hewlett-Packard
HP- Hewlett-Packard
HPFS- High Performance File System
HTM- Hierarchical Temporal Memory
HTML- Hyper Text Markup language
Hz- Hertz
Hz- Hertz

IC- Integrated Circuit
ICE- In circuit Emulator
ICMP- Internet Control Message Protocol
ICP- Internet Cache Protocol
IDL- Interface Definition Language
IEEE- Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
IEEE- Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
IGRP- Integrated Gateway Routing Protocol

IL- Intermediate Language
IM- Instant Messenger
IP- Internet Protocol
IP- Internet Protocol
IPC- Inter Process Communication
IPL- Initial Program Load
IPP- Internet Printing Protocol
IPX- Internet Packet Exchange
ISA- Instruction Set Architecture
ISDN- Integrated Services Digital Network
ISO- International Organization for Standardization
ISP- Internet Service Provider

J2EE- Java 2 Enterprise Edition
J2SE- Java 2 standard Edition
JDBC- Java Database Connectivity
JDK- Java Development Kit
JFC- Java Foundation Classes
JMS- Java Message Service
JNDI- Java Naming and Directory Interface
JNI- Java Native Interface
JPEG- Joint Photographic Experts Group
JRE- Java Runtime Environment
JS- Java Script
JSP- Java Server Pages
JVM- Java Virtual Machine

KB- Kilo Byte
KHz- Kilo Hertz
KBPS- Kilo Bytes Per Second

LAN- Local Area Network
LCD- Liquid Crystal Display
LCR- Least Cost Routing
LED- Light Emitting Diode
LIFO- Last in First Out
LOC- Lines of Code

MAC- Media Access Control
MAN- Metropolitan Area Network
MANET- Mobile Ad-Hoc Network
MDA- Mail Delivery Agent
MICR- Magnetic Ink Character Recognition
MICR- Magnetic Ink Character Recognition
MIDI- Musical Instrument Digital Interface
MIMD- Multiple Instruction Multiple Data
MIMO- Multiple Input Multiple Output
MIPS- Million Instructions Per Second
MOSFET- Metal-Oxide Semi-conductor Field Effect Transistor
MPEG- Motion Pictures Expert Group
MX- Mail Exchange
MX- Mail Exchange

NACK- Negative Acknowledgement
NAT- Network Address Translation
NFS- Network File System
NOS- Network Operating System
NUMA- Non-Uniform Memory Access
NVRAM- Non-Volatile Random Access Memory
NVRAM- Non-Volatile Random Access Memory

OASIS- Organization for the advancement of Structured Information Standards
ODBC- Open Data Base Connectivity
OLAP- Online Analytical Processing
OLE- Object Linking and Embedding
OLTP- Online Transaction Processing
OOP- Object Oriented Programming
OPML- Outline Processor Markup Language
ORB- Object Request BrokerOSI- Open Systems Interconnection

PAN- Personal Area Network
PAP- Password Authentication Protocol
PDA- Personal Digital Assistant
PDF- Portable Document Format
PERL- Practical Extraction and Reporting Language
PHP- PHP-Hypertext Preprocessor
PPI- Pixels per Inch
PVR- Personal Video Recorder

QA- Quality Assurance
QOS- Quality of Service

RAM- Random Access Memory
RDBMS- Relational Data Base Connectivity
RDM- Relational Data Model
RDS- Remote Data Service
RIP- Routing Information Protocol
RMI- Remote Method Invocationn
ROM- Read Only Memory
RPC- Remote Procedure Call

SaaS- Software as a Service
SAN- Storage Area Network
SAX- Simple Area for XML
SCADA- Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition
SCID- Source Code in Data Base
SDH- Synchronous Digital Hierarchy
SDK- Software Development Kit
SMS- Short Message Service
SMT- Simultaneous Multithreading
SNTP- Simple Network Time Protocol
SOAP- Simple Object Access Protocol
SOAP- Simple Object Access Protocol
SPARC- Scalable Process Architecture
SQL- Structured Query Language

TCP- Transmission Control Protocol
TCP/IP- Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol
TDMA- Time Division Multiple Access

UDP- User Datagram Protocol
UHF- Ultra High Frequency
UI- User Interface
UML- Unified Modeling Language
UPS-Uninterruptible Power Supply
URL- Uniform Resource Locator
USB- Universal Serial Bus

VBA- Virtual Basic For Application
VBS- Visual Basic Script
VFS- Virtual File System
VHF- Very High Frequency
VLAN- Virtual Local Area Network
VLF- Very Low Frequency
VM- Virtual Machine
VoIP- Video over Internet Protocol
VPU- Virtual Processing Unit
VSAM- Virtual Storage Access Method

WAFS- Web Area File Services
WAN- Wide Area Network
WAP- Wireless Access Point
WiMAX- World Wide Interoperability for Microwave Access
WLAN- Wireless Local Area Network
WMV- Windows Media Video
WWW- World Wide Web
WWW- World Wide Web

XAML- Extensible Application Mark-up Language
XHTML-Extensible Hyper Text Mark-up Language
XSL- Extensible Style sheet Language

ZIF- Zero Insertion Force
ZOI- Zero One Infinity

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